The human body consists mainly of water. Water is a solvent and transport medium and is necessary for all metabolic processes in the body. The water balance is regulated both by the intake of liquid from the diet and by proper water consumption. Thirst sensation occurs as a result of fluid loss through sweat, urine or after a salty meal.
A lack of water intake may lead to circulatory problems, concentration difficulties, confusion, or constipation. If the thirst is missing as a signal generator, reminders can be helpful. For example, you can check the fluid intake with a tally sheet or you can put eight empty glasses of 0,2 litres on a tray in the morning, which should be filled and drunk until evening.
If the water balance is not right, the body usually sends thirst signals: The lips, mouth and throat become dry. Adequate hydration can be observed by the colour the urine, the colourless the urine is, the better the liquid supply.
Adults should drink 1,5l daily at least.
In excessive sweating (sports, heat, heavy work), the required daily liquid amount can go up to much more than 3 litres. During reduced food intake we should drink much more, because the supplied fluid is missing from the diet. We also need more liquid on high-dietary fibre food.
The drink of choice is water, the best and most controlled food and it is calorie free.
In a balanced varied diet fruit juices are also useful. They should be diluted with water in the ratio 1:3, because of their fructose content. Especially orange juice and currant juices contain plenty of vitamin C. In all the intense red and yellow juices (natural colour, not of added dye) a lot of healthy secondary metabolites are contained. The same is true for tomatoes – and other vegetable juices, which are also low in calories (caution: often a lot of added salt). Unsweetened fruit – and herbal teas are very good thirst quenchers as well.
By the way, milk does not count as a drink to quench your thirst, but is a nutrient-rich food!
A caffeine beverage, such as coffee, black, green – and mate tea, cola drinks and energy drinks are stimulating. The caffeine that is also present in cocoa and chocolate in small quantities, affects the central nervous system. The pulse rises, because the heart is stimulated to greater pumping capacity, the adrenal glands pour out more of the hormone nor-adrenaline. The blood pressure is temporarily increased slightly. The whole metabolism gets going and the caloric basal metabolic increases. Organs are better supplied with blood, among other things, the function of the kidneys are stimulated and therefore the urinary excretion as well, similarly, the gastric secretion. The bronchi dilate, breathing accelerates. Physical and mental endurance are improved, as the reaction rate, concentration and the ability to deduce. Caffeine promotes the formation of serotonin, a mood-enhancing neurotransmitter. But beware: Caffeine is a very contrasting substance. All positive effects can be reversed from excessive caffeine consumption. About 4 cups of coffee or 1 litre black tea during the day is acceptable for a healthy adult person.
Alcohol can well have a healthy effect. For example, red wine contains flavonoids and phenolic acids which lower the cholesterol in the blood and inhibit the formation of blood clots causing heart attack´s. The amount of alcohol intake is, however, of particular importance. Too much of has exactly the opposite effect: it promotes high blood pressure, liver, pancreas and stomach disorders and the risk of cancer increases. It is recommended that no more than 1/4 litre of wine per day or 1 to 2 half pints of beer or spirits should be drunk.
Alcohol has quite a high amount of calories and should be therefore taken carefully.
Vegetables are low in calories but a rich sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fibre, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, and vitamin C. For the dressing use vegetable broth instead of oil to safe calories. The lime juice provides plenty of vitamin C. Garlic has good amounts of vitamin C, selenium, manganese, and iron. Fresh mint enhances food with a burst of cool flavour and an added dose of vitamins, calcium, and antioxidants.
Ingredients (2 Servings)
150g mixed vegetables (for example: carrots, celery, cucumber, bell peppers)
Cut the vegetables into pieces. In a medium mixing bowl, whisk together yogurt, mint, lime juice, salt and the vegetable broth. Use a rasp grater to finely grate garlic into the bowl. Stir, taste and adjust salt and lime juice as needed. Cover and refrigerate leftovers for up to 5 days.
What distinguishes Greek yogurt is its thicker, creamier texture because the liquid whey is strained out. Also, it contains probiotic cultures (healthy bacteria for the digestive tract) and is lower in lactose and has twice the protein content of regular yogurts. All yogurts are excellent sources of calcium, potassium, protein, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12. While regular yogurt tends to have fewer calories and more calcium, Greek yogurt has more protein and less sugar — and a much thicker consistency. Both types pack probiotics and support digestion, weight loss (Greek yogurt is protein-rich, so it may help people feel fuller for longer), and heart health.
Berries are high in antioxidants like anthocyanins, which may protect your cells from free radical damage and may reduce inflammation. They contain fibre, which may increase feelings of fullness, as well as reduce appetite and the number of calories your body absorbs from mixed meals. Berries are low in calories yet rich in several vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin C and manganese and they have been shown to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.
Nuts and seeds are good sources of protein, healthy fats, fibres, vitamins and minerals. Nuts and seeds regulate body weight as their fats are not fully absorbed, they regulate food intake, and help burn energy.
Dark chocolate and almonds make a rich, satisfying, and portable snack.
A 100-gram bar of dark chocolate with 70–85% cocoa contains:
11 grams of fibre
67% of the RDI for iron
58% of the RDI for magnesium
89% of the RDI for copper
98% of the RDI for manganese
It also has plenty of potassium, phosphorus, zinc and selenium
Of course, 100 grams (3.5 ounces) is a fairly large amount and not something you should be consuming daily. All these nutrients also come with 600 calories and moderate amounts of sugar. Chocolate therefore should be consumed only in moderate amounts. Cocoa and dark chocolate have a wide variety of powerful antioxidants. The bioactive compounds in cocoa may improve blood flow in the arteries and cause a small but statistically significant decrease in blood pressure.
Choose quality chocolate — dark chocolate with 70% or higher cocoa content.
Dark chocolates typically contain some sugar, but the amounts are usually small and the darker the chocolate, the less sugar it will contain.
Almonds are highest in calcium of all nuts. Almonds are also high in fibre, vitamin E and magnesium. Almonds help lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease, and can help protect against diabetes. These nuts are actually low in calories with ten almonds costing you approximately 78 calories.
Using a non-stick pan and swapping skim milk for regular will keep your scrambled eggs on the healthy recipe list. Adding Spinach increases the health benefits. It contains niacin and zinc, as well as protein, fibre, vitamins A, C, E, and K, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and manganese.
Drinking a smoothie is a great way to quell hunger cravings, satisfy a sweet tooth. Load up on low-calorie berries. Strawberries are an excellent source of vitamins C and K as well as providing a good dose of fibre, folic acid, manganese and potassium. They also contain significant amounts of phytonutrients and flavanoids which makes strawberries bright red. They may increase HDL (good) cholesterol, and lower your blood pressure.
Banana contains high amounts of vitamin B6 and B12, as well as magnesium and potassium. They are higher in sugar than many other fruits, but this sugar is natural sugar, not added. It’s totally fine to eat bananas in moderation if you want to lose weight. Fruit sugar sources, like banana are in the company of fibre, which is the type of carbohydrate you want to maximize in your diet.
Orange juice is a good source of: Vitamin C. Vitamin A. Calcium, and is high in anti-oxidants.
Because of the relatively high content of carbohydrates this smoothie shouldn’t be eaten in the afternoon or evening. To provide more protein you can use skimmed milk instead of orange juice.
Ingredients: (1 serving)
10 strawberries hulled (approx 175g), or other berries of your choice
1 small banana sliced
100ml orange juice chilled
Blitz the berries in a blender with the banana and orange juice until smooth.
Cauliflower is low in calories but high in fibre and water — all properties that may assist in weight loss. Cauliflower is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, containing some of almost every vitamin and mineral that you need, and is a good source of antioxidants.
Fibre: 3 grams
Vitamin C: 77% of the RDI (required daily intake)
Vitamin K: 20% of the RDI
Vitamin B6: 11% of the RDI
Folate: 14% of the RDI
Pantothenic acid: 7% of the RDI
Potassium: 9% of the RDI
Manganese: 8% of the RDI
Magnesium: 4% of the RDI
Phosphorus: 4% of the RDI.
Cauliflower can replace grains and legumes in many recipes, which is a great way to eat more veggies or follow a low-carb diet.
Onions of all colours (including white) are good sources of vitamin C, vitamin B6, potassium and folate, while garlic is rich invitamin C, vitamin B6, thiamin, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, copper and manganese.
Carrots are a particularly good source of beta carotene, fibre, vitamin K1, potassium, and antioxidants. They also have a number of health benefits. They’re a weight-loss-friendly (low in calories) food and have been linked to lower cholesterol levels and improved eye health.
Red peppers pack the most nutrition, because they’ve been on the vine longest. Green peppers are harvested earlier, before they have a chance to turn yellow, orange, and then red. They are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin C, and potassium. Bell Peppers also contain a healthy dose of fiber, folate, and iron. Compared to green bell peppers, the red ones have almost 11 times more beta-carotene and 1.5 times more vitamin C. Peppers are low in calories as well.
Asparagus contains many nutrients. It is an very good source of essential vitamins and minerals, especially folate and vitamins A, C and K. Asparagus has a number of features that make it a weight-loss friendly food. It’s low in calories, high in water and rich in fibre.
Ground beef is a good source of protein, providing 22 grams per 3-ounce serving. It is a good source of carnitine, zinc, selenium, iron, and B vitamins. It should be eaten sparingly because of its relatively high content of fat. Ground beef is available in a range of lean/fat ratios, from 70% lean/30% fat to as little as 3% fat (97% lean). Calorie and fat totals change accordingly.
Total Fat (g)
Saturated Fat (g)
Ingredients: (2 servings)
4 Tablespoons rapeseed oil, divided
1 head cauliflower, stem removed and chopped into small pieces
2 cups water
1/4 cup white onion, diced
1 cup carrot, diced
2 garlic cloves, minced
1 red bell pepper, seeds and membrane removed, diced
2 cups asparagus, cut into 1-inch pieces
1 pound ground beef
1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
1/2 teaspoon coriander
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes
paprika, to garnish
To make the cauliflower mash:
Add 1-1/2 tablespoons rapeseed oil to a large pot over medium heat. When hot, add the cauliflower pieces and cook for 4-5 minutes, or until it begins to turn golden. Add the water, reduce the heat slightly, and cover. Cook for 7-9 minutes or until soft. Drain the cauliflower and reserve the cooking water.
Add the cauliflower to a food processor. Add 2 tablespoons of the cooking water and pulse until smooth. Add another 2 tablespoons of the water as needed, and blend to the consistency you like. Set aside.
To make the filling:
Preheat the oven to 200 degrees Celsius. Add 1-1/2 tablespoons rapeseed oil to a large skillet over medium heat. When hot, add the onion and carrot. Cook until soft. Add garlic, bell pepper, and asparagus to the skillet with the vegetables. Add about 1/4 cup of the remaining cauliflower water to the skillet with the vegetables and cook until they begin to soften.
Meanwhile, add 1 tablespoon of rapeseed oil to a second skillet over medium heat. When hot, add the ground beef and cook until browned. When the ground beef is cooked, use a slotted spoon to transfer it to the skillet with the vegetables. Add the cumin, coriander, salt, black, and red pepper to the mixture. Stir to combine.
Transfer the mixture to a cast iron skillet (or a lightly oiled baking dish if using). Transfer the mashed cauliflower over the top of the mixture and spread it out evenly. Sprinkle the paprika over the top.
Salmon is rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to reduce inflammation, lower blood pressure and decrease risk factors for disease. Your body requires protein to heal, protect bone health and prevent muscle loss, among other things. Salmon provides 22–25 grams of protein per 3.5-ounce serving. Salmon is an excellent source of several B vitamins, which are needed for energy production, controlling inflammation and protecting heart and brain health. 100 grams of salmon provide 11–18% of the RDI (required daily intake) of potassium, which helps control blood pressure and prevent excess fluid retention. A 100-gram serving of salmon provides 59–67% of the RDI of selenium, a mineral involved in protecting bone health, improving thyroid function and reducing the risk of cancer. Consuming salmon may help you control your weight by reducing appetite, boosting metabolic rate, increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing belly fat.
Tomatoes are low in calories and provide are good amount of vitamins like vitamin A, vitamins C and E, some B vitamins and vitamin K. They also contribute some minerals including calcium and magnesium.
Tomatoesare an excellent source of lycopene, a type of carotene. Lycopene can help immune function and has been shown to prevent some types of cancer.
While tomatoes have many benefits, eating too many of them could cause you some problems. One of these is acid reflux. Tomatoes contain malic acid and citric acid and consuming too much of these could make your stomach too acidic and cause heart burn or acid reflux.
Lettuces are naturally fat free, low in calories, high in fibre, high in folate, and a high protein food as 44%of its calories come from protein.
Ingredients: (4 servings)
4 tablespoons unsalted butter
salt and pepper to taste
4 thick salmon fillets or steaks (about 1 1/2 pounds total), skin on
1 pint cherry or grape tomatoes, halved if you like
1 tablespoon drained capers
lemon wedges, for serving
Ingredients salad with dressing:
6 Baby Gem lettuces
1 pack cress, trimmed
For the dressing:
4 tbsp mayonnaise (low fat, 15%)
2 tbsp sieved tomato
¼ tsp cayenne pepper
juice 1 lemon
kcal 81 fat 8 g saturated fat 1 g fibre 1 g protein 1 g
salt 0.2 g
1. Heat the oven to 245 °C. Put the butter and a sprinkle of salt and pepper in a large skillet over medium-high heat. When the foam subsides, add the salmon and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
2. Cook, undisturbed, until the salmon sizzles and the butter darkens, 2 to 3 minutes. Scatter the tomatoes and capers around the fish and transfer the pan to the oven.
3. Roast without turning until the salmon browns on top and the inside is as cooked as you like (you’ve got to peek between the flakes with a knife to check), 3 to 8 minutes. (If you’d rather they be opaque all the way through, then leave in the oven for up to 8 minutes. Just don’t overcook them or they’ll be dry.) Serve the salmon steaks with the tomato-caper sauce spooned on top, passing the lemon wedges at the table.
Separate the lettuce leaves, put on a large dish and sprinkle over the cress. Combine all the dressing ingredients with a few tsp water to make a runny consistency. Drizzle over the lettuce and cress and serve.
Tuna Fish is high in omega-3 fatty acids which may help to reduce the level of omega-6 fatty acids and LDL cholesterol (also called bad cholesterol) that can accumulate inside the arteries of the heart. Studies have shown that eating more omega-3 is associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks. Also Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to help reduce inflammation. It is lean fish, so there isn’t much fat in it. Tuna is popular among bodybuilders and fitness models who are on a cut because it’s a great way to keep protein high, with total calories and fat low. Caution: Tuna should only be eaten rarely because of the relatively high levels of heavy metals. Tuna, as a large fish, is high in the food chain i.e. it accumulates more heavy metals in the body than small fish.
Tipp: Take Selenium rich foods to help the liver to detox. In addition to nuts and kernels, legumes, grain products, certain types of vegetables and mushrooms also contain considerable amounts of selenium.
Crème fraîche is a dairy product, a soured creme containing 10–45% butterfat, with a pH of approximately 4.5. It is soured with a bacterial culture.Standard crème fraîche contains around 30–45% milkfat while low-fat crème fraîche contains closer to 15% milkfat. So you can save some calories by using low-fat crème fraîche. Crème fraîche is a source of Vitamin A, C and Calcium. Should only be eaten in small amounts because of the high content of saturated fatty acids.
Mayonnaise is an excellent source of vitamins E and K, but it also contains almost 50 percent of your daily recommended amount of sodium . As well as helping with the absorption of all sorts of important minerals and vitamins, the healthy fats (contains mostly unsaturated fat, from 70% up to 85% of total) in mayonnaise can help lower your cholesterol.
Capers have an intense flavour that is developed as mustard oil is released from the caper buds when pickled. They have nearly no fat, no sugar but they are rich in sodium. Additionally they contain some fibre, Vitamin C, Iron and some protein. Usually they are used because of there flavour and to garnish a dish.
Dill is rich in antioxidants and a good source of vitamin C, magnesium, and vitamin A and is anti-inflammatory.
Ingredients (2 servings):
2 tbsp crème fraîche light
2 tbsp Mayonnaise light (15% fat)
1 tbsp capers
2 tbsp dill chopped
spices like pepper
Mix all ingredients together in a bowl. If using canned tuna it should come from in water packed tuna cans. As a dish for lunch you and have a slice of wholemeal bread with it. Prepared for dinner scrambled eggs go well with it. Don’t take bread with it at dinner because the intake of carbohydrates after 5 pm should be largely reduced.
Pancakes made with wholegrain oats and wholemeal flour contain not only carbohydrates but plenty of fibre to make you feel satisfied longer. The eggs and the milk provide a good amount of protein, and the apples + lemon juice give you vitamins. For a better taste I prefer rapeseed oil (or canola oil) before olive oil for baking the pancakes. In any way fats with a high content of mono- or poly- unsaturated fats should be used instead of saturated fats, which means using plant oils is healthier than using fats from animal sources (like butter).
Rapeseed Oil (15ml = 1 tablespoon)
Saturated fat: 1 gram
Monounsaturated fat: 9 grams
Polyunsaturated fat: 4 grams
Vitamin E: 16% of the Daily Value (DV)
Vitamin K: 8% of the DV
Using Cinnamon has a few health beneficial properties like:
Grate the apples with a grater into a saucepan, trickle the lemon juice over them and add the cinnamon. Simmer gently for 3 to 4 minutes and prepare the pancakes in the meantime.
Put the eggs in a bowl and whisk until they become frothy. Gradually add all the ingredients and stir thoroughly. Leave it rest for moment to thicken. Pour some oil into a pan and fry the pancakes. If you use a coated pan, you don’t need to add any fat. Put the pancakes on plates, pour the apple-sauce on half and fold the empty half over the apple-sauce half. Serve and enjoy.
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